Coup de tonnerre/Appel de Bensouda contre Gbagbo: La CPI et le bureau du procureur divisés

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La procureure de la Cour pénale internationale conteste l’acquittement de Laurent Gbagbo

Fatou Bensouda dénonce des vices de procédure et reproche aux juges d’avoir trop sévèrement évalué les preuves déposées lors des trois années de procès concernant la crise ivoirienne.

Par Cyril Bensimon et Stéphanie Maupas

La procureure de la Cour pénale internationale (CPI) a contesté, lundi 16 septembre, l’acquittement prononcé le 15 janvier en faveur de l’ex-président ivoirien, Laurent Gbagbo, et de l’ancien chef des Jeunes patriotes, Charles Blé Goudé. Fatou Bensouda demande l’annulation de la décision et la relance du procès, dénonçant des vices de procédure et reprochant aux juges d’avoir trop sévèrement évalué les preuves déposées lors des trois ans de procès.

Deux des trois juges avaient dénoncé « l’extrême faiblesse » du dossier de l’accusation, reprochant à la procureure d’avoir déformé la réalité de la crise ivoirienne pour mieux servir sa thèse. Celle selon laquelle les deux Ivoiriens auraient commis des crimes contre l’humanité lors de la crise qui avait suivi la présidentielle de 2010, et mis en œuvre une politique d’Etat visant à conserver le pouvoir en ciblant les partisans d’Alassane Ouattara, devenu depuis chef de l’Etat. La troisième juge, minoritaire, s’était, elle, opposée à l’acquittement.

Comme depuis le début de cette affaire, ce nouveau rebondissement a suscité des divergences à la CPI et, cette fois, au sein même du bureau du procureur, rapportent plusieurs sources, certaines estimant préférable de refermer le dossier. Mais Fatou Bensouda a tranché autrement.

Pour Eric-Aimé Semien, président de l’Observatoire ivoirien des droits de l’homme (OIDH), « si elle décide de faire appel, il faut que la procureure ait suffisamment d’arguments pour que justice soit faite. Elle ne peut pas se permettre de poursuivre une procédure qui aboutirait à une même décision d’acquittement ». Il dénonce « huit années perdues, pour des enquêtes qui n’ont pas abouti et pour les victimes ».

De son côté, l’avocat de Laurent Gbagbo, Emmanuel Altit, explique avoir « anticipé la décision » de la procureure, qui porte sur des questions procédurales. L’accusation a désormais jusqu’au 15 octobre pour présenter son mémoire, auquel les avocats de Laurent Gbagbo et Charles Blé Goudé devront répondre le 16 décembre au plus tard.

Les textes de la Cour n’imposent en revanche aucun délai aux juges pour rendre leur arrêt. En attendant, l’ex-président ivoirien et l’ancien chef des Jeunes patriotes sont toujours soumis aux conditions imposées par la Cour depuis leur sortie de prison, le 1er février.

Laurent Gbagbo réside à Bruxelles et ne peut quitter la capitale belge sans l’autorisation des juges. Quant à Charles Blé Goudé, il est toujours à La Haye, faute d’avoir obtenu le feu vert d’un Etat pour l’accueillir le temps qu’un jugement définitif soit prononcé.

La présidentielle de 2020 dans les esprits

Pour les partisans de Laurent Gbagbo et les cadres de son parti, le Front populaire ivoirien (FPI), qui, depuis son acquittement en première instance, le 15 janvier, n’attendaient que le retour du « Christ de Mama », son village natal en Côte d’Ivoire, l’appel de la procureure est un coup dur, vécu comme un contretemps dans un rendez-vous avec l’Histoire.

Deux jours après le premier meeting commun à Abidjan avec le PDCI, l’ex-parti unique contre lequel le FPI s’était construit dans la clandestinité, qui pourrait préfigurer une alliance électorale en vue de la présidentielle prévue en octobre 2020, la question de son avenir se pose à nouveau : « Quand Laurent Gbagbo pourra-t-il rentrer dans son pays ? », « Pourra-t-il concourir au prochain scrutin ? »

Depuis son installation à Bruxelles, l’ancien chef de l’Etat n’a jamais exprimé ses intentions, mais son vieux compagnon de lutte, Laurent Akoun, rappelle que « même s’il n’est pas présent sur le territoire, c’est lui qui est à la barre de notre formation ».

Plus perplexe que surpris, le vice-président du FPI considère que cette décision participe d’« un jeu d’intérêts entre un bureau du procureur de la CPI qui ne veut pas perdre la face et ceux qui jugent à Abidjan qu’il est bon de tenir Laurent Gbagbo loin de sa terre natale ». Une allusion à peine voilée au pouvoir en place. « Nous prenons acte. C’est assez difficile à avaler, mais comme avait dit Laurent Gbagbo en décembre 2011 [lors de sa première comparution devant la CPI], on ira jusqu’au bout. Et bien allons-y ! », conclut M. Akoun.

Une prolongation du procès

Du côté des autorités ivoiriennes, on prend soin en revanche de ne laisser filtrer aucun affect. Comme si cet appel n’était porteur d’aucune conséquence politique. « Nous prenons note de cet appel et nous nous refusons à tout commentaire. Quelle que soit la décision de la CPI, nous restons focalisés sur la préparation de l’élection de 2020 et la défense de notre bilan », martèle Mamadou Touré, le porte-parole adjoint du gouvernement. « Quand on l’a acquitté [en première instance], le ciel ne nous est pas tombé sur la tête. Le retour de Laurent Gbagbo en Côte d’Ivoire ne changerait pas fondamentalement la donne. En tout cas, il ne nous obsède pas », renchérit le ministre de l’intégration africaine Ally Coulibaly, l’un des proches d’Alassane Ouattara.

Il n’en demeure pas moins qu’une éventuelle prolongation du procès conjoint de Laurent Gbagbo et Charles Blé Goudé serait une aubaine pour le pouvoir en place. En effet, nul besoin pour lui de préparer un retour qui pourrait mettre les rues d’Abidjan en ébullition ou de devoir gérer sur le terrain un opposant qu’il pensait avoir envoyé dans une lointaine cellule pour le restant de ses jours.

Par Ivoirebusiness

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