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Economies africaines: Plaidoyer pour une politique volontariste de transformation des produits locaux, Par Dr Dadié Attebi Kock Ohusu

ECONOMIES AFRICAINES
PLAIDOYER POUR UNE POLITIQUE VOLONTARISTE DE TRANSFORMATION DES PRODUITS LOCAUX
Par DADIE ATTEBI KOCK OHUSU, Docteur en sciences économiques

Ce n’est un secret pour personne que les pays africains situés au Sud du Sahara sont tous exportateurs de matières premières brutes; qu’il s’agisse de matières agricoles que de produits minéraux. Les rares pays qui procèdent à des activités de transformation de leurs produits ne le font que de façon insuffisante pour que cela soit économiquement significatif.

Cette situation n’est pas sans conséquences sur la situation de ses pays dans leurs relations d’échanges avec le reste du monde, principalement l’Europe communautaire avec laquelle le courant d’échanges est manifestement de type polarisé. La plus patente des conséquences de cette situation est l’état d’endettement chronique dans lequel végètent depuis déjà longtemps les pays africains. Un processus amorcé au tout début des années soixante-dix.

Chaque année, ces pays doivent extraire de plus en plus de ressources de leurs sols et sous-sols pour faire face au poids de leurs dettes et surtout pour se procurer des quantités moindres de biens qu’il s’agisse de biens de consommation ou de biens de production.

Ce phénomène est décliné sous le concept de termes de l’échange qui se traduit économétriquement par le rapport entre le prix des exportations et celui des importations. On parle d’amélioration des termes de l’échange lorsque l’économie nationale exporte une quantité moindre de marchandises pour se procurer la même quantité de biens importés.

Dans le cas inverse, on parle de dégradation des termes de l’échange. Concrètement ce rapport montre l’évolution du pouvoir d’achat des exportations en importations, à volume d’échanges donné. Ce processus d’extraction croissante de matières induit une situation qui économétriquement pourrait être qualifiée de croissance mais qui économiquement parlant constitue une croissance appauvrissante.

Il en est ainsi par exemples de pays comme la Côte d’Ivoire pour le café et le cacao et du Niger pour l’uranium où se phénomène peut être observé. Ces pays en réalité sont placés sous illusion de croissance car les termes de l’échange leur sont défavorables. Leurs histoires pourraient s’écrire ainsi : au commencement étaient les termes de l’échange. Des termes de l’échange naquit l’endettement extérieur. L’endettement extérieur enfanta des logiques de régulation qui affaiblir bon nombre d’Etats. De cet affaiblissement résultèrent les instabilités politiques et sociales actuelles.

Aussi, il nous paraît intéressant de montrer dans cette contribution en quoi une des réponses aux crises africaines actuelles réside dans la capacité politique à apporter des réponses adéquates à une question devenue désormais séculaire, celle de la détérioration des termes de l’échange.

ENDETTEMENT EXTERIEUR ET DEGRADATION DES TERMES DE L’ECHANGE

Pour poursuivre certains programmes de développement, les Etats d’Afrique subsaharienne fraîchement affranchis des tutelles officielles ont fait appel à l’endettement extérieur. Ils se sont portés, en créant des structures spéciales, garants de l’endettement des investisseurs étrangers, y compris les multinationales à grandes capacités de financement aux toutes premières heures des années soixante-dix. Elles ont accouru on ne peut plus vite d’autant que les conditions aux plans nationaux furent plus permissives les unes que les autres.

Elles ont ouvert des bureaux, ont installé des ingénieurs exécutant pour faire bonne figure puis ont emprunté sur les marchés financiers locaux à des conditions avantageuses et par des tours de passe-passe s’en sont allées investir ailleurs la manne récoltée grâce aux facilités offertes par ces jeunes nations. Très vite la dette publique extérieure de ces pays a grimpé dans des proportions énormes sans qu’il n’y ait eu d’investissements susceptibles d’induire un processus de développement conséquent.

Ainsi en Côte d’Ivoire, elle est passée de 26% à 43% du Produit Intérieur Brut en trois petites années à la fin des années 70.
Au niveau des échanges, le solde commercial dans l’ensemble des pays d’Afrique noire est vite devenu négatif. L’explication le plus souvent donnée est que les termes de l’échange se dégradent. On ne dit pas les raisons de cette dégradation.

On se contente de constater les faits à savoir: la dégradation des termes de l’échange. Or, on aurait pu s’interroger et se rendre très vite compte que c’est tout simplement parce que la logique empruntée n’a pas intégré la transformation des produits primaires. Les produits africains n’ont donc tout simplement pas suffisamment de valeurs ajoutées. On s’est contentée d’accompagner à travers l’élaboration de conditions plus que permissives l’exploitation des matières premières, à garantir les prêts contractés par des multinationales qui n’ont rien à cirer du développement des pays.

L’ALTERNATIVE A LA BAISSE DES TERMES DES ECHANGES

L’Afrique noire est un continent principalement exportateur de matières premières. Il n’y a pratiquement pas de pays africain exportateur de voitures, d’ordinateurs, de téléphones portables, etc. Les prix de ses matières premières sont fixés par les firmes multinationales étrangères qui ont des filiales sur le créneau du négoce et non par les producteurs africains.

On l’a encore vu tout récemment au point que la Côte d’Ivoire et le Ghana on tenté vainement une rétention de produit afin d’obtenir un prix plancher pour leur cacao. Ces prix ne sont pas non plus le résultat de la loi de l’offre et de la demande contrairement à ce qui est souvent avancé au regard du principe théorique de la détermination du prix. Cette situation a naturellement de sérieuses conséquences sur les économies africaines aux plans économiques et financiers.

D’abord sur le plan financier, sans entrer dans des développements complexes, faute de pouvoir tirer des ressources financières conséquentes de la vente des produits, les Etats africains se voient contraints de se tourner vers les bailleurs de fonds. Ce qui a pour conséquence d’accroître sans cesse le service de leur dette. Ensuite, sur le plan économique cette situation empêche les entreprises africaines des filières agricoles d’établir des budgets stables et fiables du fait du peu de prise qu’elles ont sur le secteur.

L’alternative à cette double situation est certes de mettre en place une politique de diversification se traduisant par la multiplication des produits mais qui soit accompagnée d’une politique volontariste d’industrialisation tournée vers la transformation des produits locaux et plus spécialement de l’agriculture car une politique de diversification horizontale qui n’est pas suivie ou couplée avec une politique de transformation n’a pas de sens.

Et cette logique a besoin d’une forte implication de l’Etat en tant qu’investisseur. Quels seraient concrètement les avantages d’une politique de transformation au-delà de la conséquence macroéconomique de l’inversion des termes des échanges ?

Avantage 1 : La réduction des quantités de produits bruts destinés à l’exportation.

La transformation des matières agricoles locales va permettre de réduire la quantité des produits destinés à l’exportation. Il ne s’agira pas dans cette optique d’une réduction artificielle. Avec une politique de transformation la pression générée va être permanente sur ceux qui achètent et non plus épisodique. Il s’agit tout simplement d’inverser le sens de la pression entre producteurs et acheteurs. Si le Ghana et la Côte d’Ivoire décident de créer ensemble une grosse unité de transformation de Cacao en positionnant cette unité sur les différent modules de consommation, les effets bénéfiques se verront à court terme.

Avantage 2 : L’accroissement de la valeur ajoutée des produits exportés
La transformation locale des produits va permettre d’exporter des produits ayant une plus forte valeur ajoutée. De plus, du fait de la réduction de la chaîne des intermédiaires qu’elle induit le coût des produits s’en trouvera amoindri. Ce qui aura pour avantage de rendre plus compétitif les produits finis de la filière sur les marchés nationaux.

Avantage 3 :La stimulation des investissements et la création de nouveaux courants d’échanges
Une politique de transformation locale des produits va stimuler rationnellement les investissements tant étrangers que nationaux à la recherche d’opportunités d’investissements rentables. Elle va aussi entraîner la mise en place de filières commerciales de distribution de produits finis en direction des pays comme la Chine, le Japon, l’Inde, la Russie, l’Afrique du Sud etc.

Avantage 4 : l’Amélioration de la situation d’endettement des pays
Les investissements entrepris dans le cadre de la politique de transformation des matières premières locales vont rapporter des devises aux pays. Ce qui va permettre de relancer l’activité économique d’ensemble sans que les Etats se retrouvent dans l’obligation de s’endetter auprès du Fonds Monétaire International et autres bailleurs de fonds.

Avantage 5 : La création d’effets d’entraînement et redynamisation du secteur touristique
La transformation des produits va générer un effet d’entraînement au niveau sous-régional qui va irriguer d’autres secteurs économiques.

Avantage 6 : L’accroissement des revenus des paysans
Le développement de la transformation va permettre aux planteurs africains d’augmenter leurs revenus car elle va permettre d’allonger les saisons de production selon les produits concernés.

Avantage 7 : L’amélioration du pouvoir d’achat des ménages
Grâce à la création de courants d’échanges diversifiés générés par la transformation industrielle, les acteurs économiques africains vont pouvoir acheter des biens moins chers. Ce qui va avoir pour conséquences d’améliorer le pouvoir d’achat des ménages.

En guise de conclusion
Une politique d’industrialisation visant à assurer la transformation des produits locaux constitue incontestablement à notre sens une réponse à la dégradation des termes de l’échange. Et partant de là, c’est une réponse aux processus d’endettement qui ont conduit progressivement à affaiblir les Etats africains et induit des situations d’instabilité politiques et sociales. La mise en place d’une telle stratégie doit pouvoir se fonder sur un volontarisme incontestablement politique.

Une contribution de DADIE ATTEBI KOCK OHUSU,
Docteur en science économique

Par Ivoirebusiness

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